The World and Everything in It: August 30, 2022
Educators worry about whether students are prepared for college after the pandemic; America responds to airstrikes against our troops in Syria; and a timeline of events leading to the Afghanistan pullout one year ago. Plus: a true crime podcast review, and the Tuesday morning news.
MARY REICHARD, HOST: Good morning!
Some high school graduates are heading off to college. But how prepared are they after years of remote learning?
NICK EICHER, HOST: Also the latest on U.S. airstrikes in Syria.
Plus on this one year anniversary of the U.S. pullout from Afghanistan.
And WORLD’s Leah Savas reviews a compelling true-crime podcast.
REICHARD: It’s Tuesday, August 30th. This is The World and Everything in It from listener-supported WORLD Radio. I’m Mary Reichard.
EICHER: And I’m Nick Eicher. Good morning!
REICHARD: Now news with Kristen Flavin.
KRISTEN FLAVIN, NEWS ANCHOR: Artemis » NASA officials said a hydrogen leak, communication problems, and the weather made it scrap its long-awaited Artemis I mission.
The unmanned rocket was set to blast off Monday for a flight to the moon and back. It’s the first step in NASA’s quest to put humans back on the moon. And beyond that, a larger goal: Mars
The grounded rocket could still launch with its crew of three test dummies as early as Friday.
About 800 people, including children in astronaut suits, watched a live stream of the Artemis I launch pad Monday.
WORLD’s Bonnie Pritchett was onsite and spoke to onlookers.
AUDIO: Well the things that we learn from the space program itself. I mean it affects us so much in our everyday lives that we don’t even pay any attention to anymore.
If all goes well, NASA plans to send human astronauts to orbit the moon in 2024.
Trump update » President Donald Trump asked for a special master to protect his privileged documents—but the request might now be moot.
The Justice Department said Monday that a specialized team already went through documents seized in a raid on Trump’s Florida estate. The team flagged—quote—a limited set of materials that potentially contain attorney-client information, that from a court filing Monday.
Iraq Protests » AUDIO: [Iraqi protests]
The death toll for protests in Iraq has risen to 15, that after Shiite cleric Muqtada al-Sadr announced his retirement from politics.
Authorities say gunfire wounded 15 people. Nearly a dozen more have been hurt either by tear gas or fighting with security forces.
One man said he and his fellow protesters are tired of political parties. They want solutions to Iraqis’ problems.
The Iraqi military has announced a nationwide curfew, and the prime minister has suspended Cabinet proceedings.
Muqtada al-Sadr’s supporters raided Iraqi parliament at the end of July. Their goal? To prevent the formation of a government aligned with Iran.
Afghanistan » It’s been a year since the U.S. military moved out of Afghanistan and the Taliban moved in.
At-risk Afghans say they are still struggling to find safe and legal ways out of the country. Meanwhile, critics say terrorists are making themselves at home there.
On July 31, missiles fired from a U.S. drone took out al-Qaeda leader Ayman al-Zawahiri in Kabul. U.S. Sen. Joni Ernst says that proves the Taliban is colluding with al-Qaeda.
ERNST: We’ve just saw strikes several weeks ago which took out the leader of al-Qaeda as he was sipping coffee on his veranda in downtown Kabul.
Al-Zawahiri’s presence violated the Taliban’s withdrawal agreement with the U.S. Taliban leaders said they didn’t know he was there.
In the U.S., National Security Council Coordinator John Kirby said the government is trying to streamline the process for Afghans to resettle here:
KIRBY: The state department is trying to look for ways to make the process better. They’re continuing to actively process applications every single day.
Of the tens of thousands of Afghans who applied for U.S. humanitarian parole after its withdrawal, only 297 have been approved.
Ukraine nuclear plant » A 14-man UN team has left to go visit the Zaporizhzhia nuclear plant in Ukraine, that as European leaders fear the potential of a nuclear disaster.
Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky supported the visit…
But he also said that sanctions need to be leveled against Russia’s nuclear energy corporation for—quote—“radiation blackmail.”
The UN nuclear team is set to arrive later this week, and will check crucial safety features to help prevent nuclear disaster.
Ukrainian Foreign Minister Dmytro Kuleba said a visit isn’t enough:
KULEBA: Russia must go… it’s as simple as that.
Meanwhile, shelling still continues around the plant, and both Ukraine and Russia say the other is responsible.
Stocks falling » Stocks fell again on Monday, that after Fed chair Jerome Powell announced on Friday that the Federal Reserve would continue its severe interest rate hikes.
The Fed’s last two increases were three-quarter point hikes. Many on Wall Street expect another such bump in September. Senior market analyst Ed Moya said the Fed …
MOYA: Is really locked in a position right now where they were late to begin tightening. They were wrong about inflation being transitory. And now they they really, you know, put themselves in a corner where they have to deliver rate hikes aggressively.
The S&P 500 fell seven-tenths of a percentage point on Monday. The Dow and the Nasdaq also lost one point or less.
I’m Kristen Flavin. Straight ahead: educators worry about students entering college after the pandemic.
Plus, a timeline leading up to the Afghanistan pullout one year ago.
This is The World and Everything in It.
MARY REICHARD, HOST: It’s Tuesday the 30th of August, 2022.
Glad to have you along for today’s edition of The World and Everything in It. Good morning, I’m Mary Reichard.
NICK EICHER, HOST: And I’m Nick Eicher.
This fall as high school graduates go to college, some educators worry that they aren’t ready. School closures and remote learning during the pandemic have left many students lacking the skills necessary for success in college. WORLD’s Lauren Dunn reports.
LAUREN DUNN, REPORTER: Herbie Walker is the president of the Western Association for College Admission Counseling. He’s also the director of college counseling at Faith Lutheran School in Las Vegas, Nev., and he volunteers with local student programs, working with students from several high schools.
WALKER: I've noticed with the students I have been working with again, this is anecdotal is that students are having a much harder time expressing themselves. I'm seeing personal statements that are exceedingly vague in general. And I struggle to get kids to kind of get into more nuanced details about what's happened in their personal lives or personal academics and things like that.
Walker doesn’t think virtual schooling itself is always the problem. Instead, he points to the last-minute need to hurriedly switch to remote learning, and then the later switch back to traditional classroom instruction.
WALKER: I've seen some very successful online virtual programs, but I really believe what was being underestimated was the amount of effort to turn that battleship around and then around again, which caused learning loss as teachers were learning new formats, new ways of approaching.
Remote learning may have worked for some students. But for others, remote learning severely complicated their education.
WALKER: But even a school that was giving a top quality, virtual experience, the students on the other side didn't have an ideal situation to receive that education, meaning they were in homes where they may or may not have had stable Wi Fi or they didn't have a computer or if they had a computer, if there was more than one kid in the in the home, how are they sharing computers were there enough computers to go around was the bandwidth enough for three kids to be logged into virtual at the same time.
Most schools in the country closed for the last few weeks of the spring 2020 semester, shifting millions of students to online learning. Some reopened for in-person learning in fall 2020. Many offered hybrid learning, with students attending school in-person in smaller cohorts only on certain days of the week. In some places, students didn’t return to school full-time until fall 2021.
Now, as those students enter college, some are finding it’s a bigger jump than they thought.
Allison Wagner is the founding executive director of All-In Milwaukee, a college completion program.
WAGNER: We're very concerned that they're coming to college, academically malnourished. I reviewed 324 transcripts from Milwaukee students, and it was very concerning to see the number of them that had early release in order to go and work for half the day. And I think that was from pandemic. You know, during the pandemic, a lot of students were in virtual learning, so they were actually working, and then doing minimal school.
The non-profit first welcomed 40 freshman students to the program in 2019, and this year accepted over three times that number.
Wagner says that many students also face mental health needs like anxiety or the lingering effects of isolation. This means some students may have even greater difficulty adjusting to college life.
WAGNER: So this summer, we tried to get as many of our students as possible into summer bridge programs that actually included college courses, we wanted to make sure they had a true understanding of what the college classes will feel like. And it's much better to take one or two classes than it is to take a full load. So we really wanted them, if you will, to test drive the car before they bought it.
But some high school graduates will choose to skip college altogether. According to College Track, over a quarter of high school seniors from low-income families decided against college during the pandemic.
Elizabeth Morgan is the chief of external relations for the National College Attainment Network.
MORGAN: Many of our students, before the pandemic, were on the edge about whether to go to college or not, right, it was going to be a big lift for them and a big risk in many ways. And the additional uncertainty of the pandemic, it just tipped the balance for them.
Morgan said some students went straight into the workforce to help support family members. Often, they worked jobs that paid well due to low employment rates. Other students didn’t enroll in college because some were still virtual.
MORGAN: Especially in that, you know, the first year of the pandemic, where students were looking at having to go to college online, right? They just maybe finished high school online, and then looking at college online, and they said, I don't want to do that, right? I don't want that. And I wouldn't do well at that. It's not good for me, right? So in a lot of ways, students made a lot of very rational choices here.
But Morgan said more students may opt for college now that classes are once again in-person. She pointed to rising financial aid application numbers as an indicator that more students are planning on college.
Herbie Walker in Nevada also thinks there could be signs of progress. He says 2022 high school graduates may have an advantage over graduates from the year before because of their in-person learning in their senior year. He also hopes to see financial aid for lower-income students return to pre-pandemic levels.
WALKER: I'm very much excited for this upcoming year, because it's going to be the most normal admission cycle we've had in about three years.
Reporting for WORLD, I’m Lauren Dunn.
MARY REICHARD, HOST: Coming up next on The World and Everything in It: American airstrikes in Syria.
NICK EICHER, HOST: Last week, the United States responded to rocket attacks on American troops on bases in northeastern Syria. This development deserves our attention even as the war in Ukraine continues to dominate headlines.
Joining us to talk about it is David Adesnik. He served in the U.S. Department of Defense and has devoted years to research on Syria and Iran. Today he is a senior fellow at the Foundation for Defense of Democracies.
REICHARD: David, good morning.
DAVID ADESNIK, GUEST: Pleasure to be here. Thank you.
REICHARD: What happened in Syria to prompt American airstrikes last week? The who, what, and why?
ADESNIK: Well, it’s an ongoing situation where Iran and its proxies have continually launched strikes at the American presence in northeast Syria and at one other base in a different part of the country. They, of course, don't want us there. Their client—Bashar Al Assad—is, of course, the dictator who presides over what's left of the state after a civil war in which his regime was responsible for hundreds of thousands of deaths. And specifically, I think the Iranians would like to present this as retaliation for Israel striking Iranian assets inside Syria. And there's been an ongoing Israeli campaign because Iran sees Syria as a launchpad for future attacks on Israel, and even some current attacks on Israel. But it decided this time to retaliate against the U.S. And the U.S. responded to that retaliation.
REICHARD: And who specifically are we talking about? Who are the parties here?
ADESNIK: Right, so that's one of the questions that remains a little shadowy. Iran has a wide network of proxies in the region, a range of militias, a lot of them sort of based in Iraq, active in Iraq politically, and they may be the ones doing this, you know, there are indications that the drones may have flown from Iraq, but a lot remains uncertain.
REICHARD: Let’s back up and understand what policy the Biden administration is following here?
ADESNIK: Sure, so the biggest change from Trump to Biden was that Donald Trump himself personally wanted to withdraw U.S. troops from Syria. For him, it was one of the endless wars he wanted to end. Although Syria in a lot of ways is very different. We never had a big troop presence there, several thousand at the most. And it was it was a campaign we really fought through others, through our partners—Syrian Arabs and Syrian Kurds—who helped defeat the Islamic State or ISIS, whose caliphate or state had headquarters, its capital in Syria, and we fought a campaign there to dismantle it. And once that campaign was over, Trump wanted to pull out. The difference is that many people—and I would agree with the following assessment—believe that if you don't keep some prisons there, keep training our allies, keep pushing down on the remnants of the Islamic State, it will come back. And they've showed signs of that. There was a major prison break they launched. But anyway, the main driver behind the U.S. presence in northeast Syria with about 900 troops is to prevent ISIS from reemerging and to train those who can keep it down.
REICHARD: I know President Biden wants to restart the nuclear deal with Iran that President Trump put a stop to in 2018. And European leaders right now are trying to renegotiate Iran’s nuclear capabilities. How do we make sense of the airstrikes in Syria - a response to the Iran backed Islamic Revolutionary Guard’s actions there- in light of that?
ADESNIK: Sure, so in general the United States has been very wary of explicitly linking the situation in Syria or policy in Syria to the Iran nuclear deal. And it was the same under the Obama administration. Basically, we don't want to say we are either going soft on Assad, or that we are letting Iran manipulate the country in order to facilitate a nuclear deal.
REICHARD: Under Secretary of Defense Colin Kahl said the U.S. airstrikes illustrates US commitment to push back against Iran’s support for terrorism. Does that seem consistent with the other policy goals of this administration?
ADESNIK: In theory, it is. So as part of the nuclear agreement, the administration is under pressure to show that it won't go soft on other areas. The biggest flashpoint was when Iran was demanding that we lifted terrorism designation on its Revolutionary Guard as [part of the] deal. And what they're saying is they want us to lift that designation even though they're not going to stop engaging in terrorism and a range of activities that support terrorism by supporting Hamas, by supporting Hezbollah, the Lebanese organization. And therefore critics are saying—and I think there's a lot to this—we're trying to cut this deal with Iran even though they're a state sponsor of terrorism, officially designated, and are going to continue to perpetrate these activities throughout the region. So what you're hearing from Kahl is an effort to say, look, we want to negotiate on this one area, the nuclear, and we're going to do some pushback on the other areas, like them firing rockets at our bases.
REICHARD: David, what do you wish Americans understood about this situation?
ADESNIK: Well, I think the basic understanding of why there is a U.S. presence and military presence in Syria in the first place, and we understand that the American population has seen, obviously, a manifest failure in Afghanistan. In Iraq because of the withdrawal that was completed in 2011 and the Islamic State had a chance to come back. And of course, everyone remembers the casualties the United States suffered. But what they need to understand is how different Syria has been over the past eight years. And it's sort of remarkable to think of it that way, that we've now been operating militarily in Syria for eight years to keep the or to put the Islamic State down and to keep it down. Thousands and thousands of Syrian allies of ours have given their lives on the battlefield to fight the Islamic State and we've supported them with special forces, with surveillance, with airpower so that fewer than 10 Americans have lost their lives in combat, according to Pentagon numbers, as part of this counter terror mission in Syria. And the other thing is, we've learned a lesson. If you mostly get the terrorists down, but not out and then you walk away, they come back. That's what we learned in Iraq. It's partially the lesson in Afghanistan. We've seen it in some signs of resurgence in Syria. So people should understand there's a rationale for having American troops there. Some people want to say, why are they there? They're sitting ducks. Iraq can take cheap shots at them. And they should remember that broader context.
REICHARD: David Adesnik is a senior fellow with the Foundation for Defense of Democracies. David, thank you.
ADESNIK: My pleasure.
NICK EICHER, HOST: Well, one of the requirements to drive a car is passing a vision test.
But not always. Last week that requirement was set aside in the case of Michigan Supreme Court Justice Richard Bernstein.
Justice Bernstein has been blind since birth. But he’s long yearned for something, as he told television station WNEM:
BERNSTEIN: I've always wanted that feeling of what it's like to hit the gas or what it's like to turn on the ignition and what it's like to operate a steering wheel.
Well, Genesee County Sheriff Chris Swanson arranged for him to do those very things. Bernstein got to take a car on a dirt track with the sheriff riding shotgun and giving very specific directions.
SWANSON: Slow. Now, straighten it out, straighten it out. Soft left, soft left. He’s doin’ it!
Yeah, he’s doing it.
It’s The World and Everything in It.
MARY REICAHRD, HOST: Today is Tuesday, August 30th. We’re glad you’ve turned to WORLD Radio to help start your day.
Good morning. I’m Mary Reichard.
NICK EICHER, HOST: And I’m Nick Eicher. Coming next on The World and Everything in It: the American troop pullout from Afghanistan—one year ago today.
The debate is still going on over whether the action marks victory or defeat for U.S. foreign policy.
REICHARD: To mark the anniversary, WORLD’s Paul Butler has prepared a timeline of events that led up to last August’s pullout after 20 years.
PAUL BUTLER, REPORTER: On October 7th, 2001, the United States launches Operation Enduring Freedom. It’s in response to Afghanistan’s refusal to hand over Osama bin Laden after the September 11th attacks.
GEORGE W. BUSH: On my orders, the United States military has begun strikes against al-Qaida terrorist training camps and military installations of the Taliban regime in Afghanistan…
Within two months the US and its Allies drive the Taliban from power. But the conflict is far from over. The operation drags on for more than a decade.
On May 27th, 2014, US President Barack Obama announces a plan for full troop withdrawal by the end of 2016.
VIDEO OBAMA: This year, we will bring America’s longest war to a responsible end. We will no longer patrol Afghan cities or towns, mountains or valleys. That is a task for the Afghan people.
Seven months later, Obama officially ends Operation Enduring Freedom:
OBAMA: And in less than two weeks, after more than 13 years, our combat mission in Afghanistan will be over. Today, more of our troops are home for the holidays than any time in over a decade.
But in the end, President Obama has to admit that his campaign promise of pulling the US out of Afghanistan by the end of his term just isn’t possible.
VIDEO OBAMA: I strongly believe that it is in our national security interest, especially after all the blood and treasure we’ve invested in Afghanistan over the years, that we give our Afghan partners the very best opportunity to succeed …
In February, 2019, the Trump administration agrees to preliminary terms for withdrawal from Afghanistan by May 2021. Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell from the Senate Floor.
MITCH MCCONNELL: It is time to reaffirm our commitment to the vision, and to the men and women fighting on the ground, to uphold it
Seven months later, President Trump calls off the peace talks after a Taliban attack kills a US soldier.
VIDEO TRUMP: When I heard very simply that they killed one of our soliders and 12 other innocent people. I said there’s no way I’m meeting on that basis. There’s no way I’m meeting. And the government is going to have to take responsibility or do whatever it is they do. I’ve been saying since the campaign that yeah, we’d like to get out. But we’ll get out at the right time.
During the 2020 Presidential campaign, former Vice President Joe Biden maintains that the conflict in Afghanistan has to come to an end—promising to make that a top priority if elected.
VIDEO BIDEN: It’s long past time we end the forever wars which have cost us untold blood and treasure.
Three months after taking office, President Biden announces the pullout of American forces in Afghanistan—beginning May 1st, 2021. He promises complete withdraw by the 20th anniversary of the September 11th attacks:
BIDEN: The war in Afghanistan was never meant to be a multigenerational undertaking. We were attacked. We went to war with clear goals. We achieved those objectives. Bin Laden is dead, and Al Qaeda is degraded in Iraq, in Afghanistan, and it’s time to end the forever war.
True to his promise, US troops begin pulling out on May 1st. Over the next few months the Taliban become more and more brazen—making strong gains across the country:
PBS NEWS HOUR: Since the U.S. announced its withdrawal nine weeks ago, a senior Afghan official tells "PBS NewsHour" the Taliban have seized 40 districts all over the country. In total, the Taliban control more than 120 districts, and are fighting over an additional 180 districts.
July 2nd, 2021—US and NATO troops withdraw from Bagram Air Base—the main military base about an hour from Kabul. The Afghan military doesn’t find out till two hours. It is a sign of what’s to come.
GENERAL MIR ASADULLAH KOHISTANI: After we see some rumors that the Americans left the Bagram, we increased our intelligence report and finally by seven o’clock [in the] morning, it was confirmed that they were already left the Bagram
Less than a month before the Biden administration’s September 11th deadline, US embassy personnel lower the U.S. flag and flee the country. On the same day, the Taliban take control of Kabul—much faster than most analysts predicted.
For the next three weeks, the US military and its allies evacuate tens of thousands of Afghans & Americans through the Kabul airport.
AUDIO: [AFGHANS TRYING TO FLEE AT THE AIRPORT]
On August 26th, 2021, more than 160 people are killed in a suicide bombing—including 13 American soldiers. It is the deadliest strike on US forces in a decade.
BIDEN: We will not forgive, we will not forget. We will hunt you down and make you pay.
Over the next four days, the situation is often chaotic and heartbreaking. Images of Afghans clinging to the exterior of an American transport plane as it takes off illustrate the stark reality for many who are left behind.
The last plane takes off August 30th, 2021. The US withdrawal is officially finished.
GENERAL FRANK MCKENZIE: I’m here to announce the completion of our withdrawal from Afghanistan and the end of the military mission to evacuate American citizens, third country nationals, and vulnerable Afghans.
The next day, the Taliban declare victory.
AUDIO: [CELEBRATORY GUNFIRE]
Over the two decades at least 2,300 U.S. servicemen die in the conflict. More than $800 billion is poured into Afghanistan’s economy, military, and infrastructure. Thousands of Afghan allies remain in the country awaiting rescue.
BIDEN: I know my decision will be criticized, but I would rather take all that criticism then pass this decision onto another President of the United States. Because it’s the right one, it’s the right decision for our people. The right one for our brave service members who have risked their lives serving our nation. And it’s the right one for America. Thank you. May God protect our troops, our diplomats, and all brave Americans serving in harm’s way.
Reporting for WORLD, I’m Paul Butler.
EICHER: Special thanks to our WORLD Radio Intern Anna Mandin for her research and production help on this story. And be sure to join us tomorrow for a first hand account of last year’s evacuation.
MARY REICHARD, HOST: Today is Tuesday, August 30th. Good morning! This is The World and Everything in It from listener-supported WORLD Radio. I’m Mary Reichard.
NICK EICHER, HOST: And I’m Nick Eicher. Today, we begin something new. And fair warning: this segment may not be appropriate for young ears, so if that’s the case for you, now’s the time to hit pause and come back later.
With more than two million podcasts worldwide, it takes discernment to know what’s worth your time. We want to help with that.
REICHARD: Today, we review a podcast that tells the story of serial killer Kermit Gosnell. It’s a horrible story but one that can help Christians better understand the real-world effects of sin.
Here now is WORLD’s Leah Savas.
CLIP: He's got medical waste in the basement and in the freezer, body parts that are decomposing. And she says it's from the abortions.
LEAH SAVAS, COMMENTATOR: That’s a clip from the six-episode podcast series, Serial Killer: A True Crime Podcast, by journalist Ann McElhinney. It’s a well-researched, deep dive into the investigation, trial, and lies of Kermit Gosnell. The abortionist is now serving three life sentences in a Pennsylvania state prison.
Before I started reporting on abortion in 2019, I didn’t pay much attention to abortion-related news, but I had heard of Gosnell. The man operated a filthy abortion facility on Lancaster Avenue in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. State officials had not inspected it for over a decade—despite numerous complaints. Even after the death of one woman in 2009, officials didn’t shut down his facility until a drug investigation spurred a 2010 raid. Investigators then uncovered evidence of killings of infants born alive. That led to murder charges in 2011 and a 2013 trial that should have been front-page news… but many media outlets failed to cover it.
One thing I appreciate about the podcast is the creators’ close connections with the story. McElhinney’s husband and co-producer, Phelim McAleer, was one of the few journalists to attend Gosnell’s trial early on. Their familiarity with the story shows: The podcast is thorough. It features reenactments of grand jury proceedings and the trial, as well as interviews with the people involved. Investigators recall vivid memories, including what Gosnell did during the initial raid.
CLIP: JAMES WOOD: and he asked if he could eat. So he whips out his teriyaki salmon and starts to eat with these bloody gloves.
McElhinney and McAleer also interviewed Gosnell himself. To me, the recordings of their phone calls with him were the most striking part of the podcast. They gave me a sense of Gosnell’s charismatic personality and exposed his dishonesty. He also insists on his innocence, despite overwhelming evidence.
This reminded me of how quick people are to justify sin—how quick I am to cover up my own sin. Even if we conceal it from our friends and family and convince ourselves that we’re in the right, God ultimately knows and will expose wrong in the end. That’s why you and I—just as much as Gosnell—need Christ’s atoning work on our behalf. Without that when we stand before God, we’ll all face eternal condemnation.
This podcast Serial Killer is not for everyone. It includes gruesome, true-to-life details that listeners should approach soberly—not with the goal of being entertained. But it’s a story that many people should hear because it exposes the depths of human sin and the violence of abortion.
CLIP: It was horrible. I've seen five babies born and listening to the matter of fact description of people who either witnessed or participated in the killings of babies the same size as my babies, fully born, moving, breathing, screaming, the matter of fact way that their deaths were described. And the joy that was described in the way Gosnell did it. I don't, I never had a case that bothered me as much as this.
I’m Leah Savas.
NICK EICHER, HOST: Tomorrow: student loans. If President Biden has his way, you’ll be paying even if you never went to college. We’ll talk about it.
And, campuses post-Covid.
That and more tomorrow.
I’m Nick Eicher.
MARY REICHARD, HOST: And I’m Mary Reichard.
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